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A study published in BMJ Journals using a sample of 6,000 young people in England has concluded that those of medium and higher academic ability aged 11 were less likely to smoke cigarettes but more likely to drink alcohol regularly and use cannabis. Regarding children of higher academic abilities at age 11, the results were less clear. They proved to be more likely than children of lower ability to use cannabis in early adolescence but the difference between the two groups was less statistically significant. These associations persisted in both early adolescence (13-17 years) and in late adolescence (18-20 years), which led the researchers to contradict the usual hypothesis that high academic ability is associated with temporary experimentation with substance use. The cohort was established to assess the transitions made by young people as they mature from secondary to tertiary education in adulthood.