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Home Clinical Clinical Review

Clinical Review

An update on hypertension

Dr Michael Carmody provides a thorough review of current best practice in hypertension management

Blood pressure was first measured by Stephen Hales in 1773. It is defined in simple mathematical terms as the product of cardiac output and total peripheral vascular resistance. The ideal blood pressure in an uncomplicated individual is 120/80mmHg. Blood pressure between 121-139 systolic, or 80-89 diastolic is defined as prehypertension. Anything higher than this is classed as hypertension, or high blood pressure.


Targeted therapies in breast cancer

There are two well established targets in the treatment of breast cancer. These are the oestrogen receptor and the HER2/neu receptor, a surface glycoprotein. Women with so called “triple negative” breast cancers (TNBC) are hormone receptor and HER2 receptor-negative. Unsurprisingly, this subtype is associated with a poorer prognosis and has more limited treatment options.


Case study: advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)

Liam Bell was first referred to Dr Phillip Murphy, consultant haematologist at Beaumont Hospital, in 2006. Mr Bell had been diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) five years previously and it had now reached a stage where treatment was necessary.


Clinical conundrums in contraception

When a patient attends their GP for contraceptive advice it is often a simple, straightforward discussion. However, here are a number of possible complications and condundrums common when choosing contraception


Review of the first full year of the National Cervical Screening Programme

The Dublin Well Woman Centre sees thousands of women every year for a number of services, including cervical screening. We have built up a computerised database of information dating back to mid 2001. Since 2002 we have taken between 8,000 and 9,000 cervical smear tests annually but last year, due to the screening programme, this was increased to 9,600.

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